Original article

Writing Errors in Broca’s and Wernicke’s Aphasias as a Manifestation of Functional Strategies for Writing

1,2 ORCIDElena G. Ivanova, 3 ORCIDAnatoly А. Skvortsov, 1,2,4 ORCIDYuri V. Mikadze

1 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
2 Federal Center for Brain and Neurotechnology, Moscow, Russian Federation
3 National Research University «Higher School of Economics», Moscow, Russian Federation
4 Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russian Federation


The research is devoted to the study of functional rearrangements in the structure of agraphia syndrome, depending on the contentof the written task.Aim: To identify the variability of writing disorders in sensory and motor efferent agraphia in the conditions of performing differenttypes of writing in terms of functional orientation.Materials and methods. The study involved 51 participants with post stroke aphasia and agraphia (29 people with with Wernickeaphasia). The severity of speech syndromes ranged from mild to moderate. All patients were right-handed. The native language forall participants was Russian. The study was carried out on the basis of inpatient departments of the Center for Speech Pathology andNeurorehabilitation in Moscow. Experimental methods included specially designed tasks that actualize the communicative, mnesticand regulatory functions of written speech. The productivity of writing when performing these tasks was compared with the assessmentof the performance of diagnostic tasks traditionally used in clinical practice. Written errors were assessed at the level of individualgraphemes, words and sentences. Statistical error analysis was carried out by intraindividual comparison of errors using nonparametricChi-square tests and Wilcoxon’s test with subsequent correction for multiple comparisons using the Holm-Bonferroni method.Results. It was shown that in the group of patients with sensory agraphia, changes in the error structure were leading due to theincreased load on the operation of auditory-speech analysis. In the group of patients with efferent motor dissociation agraphia identifiedwhen comparing different kinds of syntax errors. A common pattern for both groups was the use of compensatory strategies thatoptimize the writing process. Patients of both groups resorted to elliptical (incomplete, abbreviated) writing, used phrases of simplesyntactic constructions, trying to reduce the number of written errors. The patients also resorted to a high variability of the communicativetask, choosing the vocabulary that was most solidified in the past experience, which made it possible to avoid writing errors.Conclusion. Writing errors due to aphatic syndromes can be not only a manifestation of structural disorders of the component structureof speech function, but also a manifestation of the action of functional strategies of written communication.

Keywords: agraphia, aphasia, functional communication, writing strategies, syntax errors

For citation: Ivanova E.G., Skvortsov А.А., Mikadze Yu.V. Efferent Motor or Sensory Agraphia Errors as a Manifestation of Functional Strategies for Writing Activities. Bulletin of Rehabilitation Medicine. 2021; 20(1): 51-59. https://doi.org/10.38025/2078-1962-2021-20-1-51-59


Creative Commons License
The content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


Interregional Fund for Assistance to Relatives of Stroke Patients
Russian Association for Sport Medicine and Rehabilitation of Patients and the Disabled